For citing MazeSuite in your publications please use the following:

Ayaz, H., Shewokis, P. A., Curtin, A., Izzetoglu, M., Izzetoglu, K., & Onaral, B. (2011). Using MazeSuite and Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Study Learning in Spatial Navigation. J Vis Exp(56), e3443. doi: 10.3791/3443

Ayaz, H., Allen, S. L., Platek, S. M., & Onaral, B. (2008). Maze Suite 1.0: a complete set of tools to prepare, present, and analyze navigational and spatial cognitive neuroscience experiments. Behav Res Methods, 40(1), 353-359. doi: 10.3758/BRM.40.1.353

Below is a list of select references that have cited or benefited from MazeSuite. If you like add yours to this list, please send them to or post on the forum:

Buckley MG, Bast T. (2018) A new human delayed‐matching‐to‐place test in a virtual environment reverse‐translated from the rodent watermaze paradigm: Characterization of performance measures and sex differences. Hippocampus. 2018;28:796–812.

Eren, K. (2018). Insight as Invention of Relational Reference Systems: Emerging Cognitive Maps in Spatial and Non-Spatial Contexts (master’s thesis). Boğaziçi University, Turkey

Quercia, A., Zappasodi, F., Committeri, G., & Ferrara, M. (2018). Local Use-Dependent Sleep in Wakefulness Links Performance Errors to Learning. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 12(122). doi:10.3389/fnhum.2018.00122

Raiesdana, S., (2018). Modeling the interaction of navigational systems in a reward-based virtual navigation task. J. Integr. Neurosci. 17, 45–67. doi:10.3233/JIN-170036

Luna, D., Manzanares-Silva, M., Rodríguez-González, K., & López-Cruz, H. (2018). Long-term spatial memory in humans trained in a virtual maze. Acta Colombiana de Psicología21(1), 70-94. doi:10.14718/acp.2018.21.1.4

Seel, S. V. (2017) The Demands of Episodic Memory on Hippocampal Function in Rats and Humans, PhD thesis, Durham University. Available at Durham E-Theses Online:

Batula, A. M., Kim, Y. E., & Ayaz, H. (2017). Virtual and Actual Humanoid Robot Control with Four-Class Motor-Imagery-Based Optical Brain-Computer Interface. BioMed Research International, 2017, 13. doi:10.1155/2017/1463512

Batula, A. M. (2017). Developing an Optical Brain-Computer Interface for Robot Control (Doctoral dissertation, Drexel University).

Sansana, Mauro Rafael Oliveira. (2016) BCI-Based Spatial Navigation Control: A Comparison Study. Diss. Universidade de Lisboa

Batula, A. M., Mark, J., Kim, Y. E., & Ayaz, H. (2016). Developing an Optical Brain-Computer Interface for Humanoid Robot Control. In D. D. Schmorrow & C. M. Fidopiastis (Eds.), Foundations of Augmented Cognition: Neuroergonomics and Operational Neuroscience (Vol. Part I, LNAI 9743, pp. 1-11).

Buckley, M. G., Smith, A. D., & Haselgrove, M. (2016). Thinking outside of the box: transfer of shape-based reorientation across the boundary of an arena. Cognitive Psychology, 87, 53-87.

Buckley, M. G., Smith, A. D., & Haselgrove, M. (2016). Blocking spatial navigation across environments that have a different shape. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition, 42(1), 51. doi:10.1037/xan0000084

Batun, B. (2015). Gender And Personality Differences In Cognitive Tasks: A Performance And Mental Workload Study (Doctoral Dissertation, Middle East Technical University).

Gomes, N. (2015). Comparison of Brain and Behavioral Measures During a 3D-Computer Maze Task in Order to Examine the Learning Process (Doctoral dissertation, University of Delaware).

Howie, S. (2015). Creating an Appropriate Experimental Design to Study the Learning Process in a Computer Maze Task (Doctoral dissertation, University of Delaware).

Luna, D., & Martínez, H. (2015) Spontaneous recovery of human spatial memory in a virtual water maze. International Journal of Methodology and Experimental Psychology. 36(2), 283-308

Buckley, M. G. (2015). Mechanisms of shape-based spatial learning (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nottingham).

Buckley, M. G., Haselgrove, M., & Smith, A. D. (2015). The developmental trajectory of intramaze and extramaze landmark biases in spatial navigation: An unexpected journey. Developmental psychology, 51(6), 771.

Walkowiak, S., Foulsham, T., & Eardley, A. F. (2015). Individual differences and personality correlates of navigational performance in the virtual route learning task. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 402-410. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.041

Buckley, M. G., Smith, A. D., & Haselgrove, M. (2014). Learned predictiveness training modulates biases towards using boundary or landmark cues during navigation. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1-20. DOI:10.1080/17470218.2014.977925

Hampstead, B. M., Brown, G. S., & Hartley, J. F. (2014). Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Modulates Activation and Effective Connectivity During Spatial Navigation. Brain stimulation, 7(2), 314-324.

Buckley, M. G., Smith, A. D., & Haselgrove, M. (2014). Shape shifting: Local landmarks interfere with navigation by, and recognition of, global shape, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, Vol 40(2), Mar 2014, 492-510. doi: 10.1037/a0034901

Akinlofa, O. R., Holt, P. O. B., & Elyan, E. (2014). The cognitive benefits of dynamic representations in the acquisition of spatial navigation skills. Computers in Human Behavior30, 238-248. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2013.09.009

Ferrari, M., Bisconti, S., Spezialetti, M., Moro, S. B., Di Palo, C., Placidi, G., & Quaresima, V. (2014). Prefrontal Cortex Activated Bilaterally by a Tilt Board Balance Task: A Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study in a Semi-Immersive Virtual Reality Environment. Brain topography27(3), 353-365.

Basso Moro, S., Bisconti, S., Muthalib, M., Spezialetti, M., Cutini, S., Ferrari, M., Placidi, G. & Quaresima, V. (2014). A semi-immersive virtual reality incremental swing balance task activates prefrontal cortex: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study. NeuroImage85, 451-460.

Holper, L., Jäger, N., Scholkmann, F., & Wolf, M. (2013). Error detection and error memory in spatial navigation as reflected by electrodermal activity. Cognitive processing14(4), 377-389. doi: 10.1007/s10339-013-0567-z

Akinlofa, Olurotimi Richard. “An investigation into the cognitive effects of instructional interface visualisations.” (2013). Doctoral dissertation, Robert Gordon University.

Akinlofa, O. R., Holt, P. O. B., & Elyan, E. (2012, September). The acquisition of spatial navigational skills from dynamic versus static visualisations. In Proceedings of the 26th Annual BCS Interaction Specialist Group Conference on People and Computers (pp. 298-302). British Computer Society.

Thomson, D. M. (2012). Human Visual Navigation: Effects of Visual Context, Navigation Mode, and Gender, Doctoral dissertation, University of Waikato.

Krill AL, Platek SM (2012) Working Together May Be Better: Activation of Reward Centers during a Cooperative Maze Task. PLoS ONE 7(2): e30613. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030613

Ayaz, H., Shewokis, P. A., Curtin, A., Izzetoglu, M., Izzetoglu, K., & Onaral, B. (2011). Using MazeSuite and Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy to Study Learning in Spatial Navigation. J Vis Exp (56), e3443. doi: 10.3791/3443

Shewokis P., Ayaz, H., Izzetoglu, M., Bunce, S., Gentili, R., Sela, I., . . . Onaral, B. (2011). Brain in the Loop: Assessing Learning Using fNIR in Cognitive and Motor Tasks. In D. Schmorrow & C. Fidopiastis (Eds.), Foundations of Augmented Cognition. Directing the Future of Adaptive Systems (Vol. 6780, pp. 240-249): Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.

Curtin A, Ayaz H, Shewokis P A, Onaral B. (2011) P300 based EEG-BCI for spatial navigation, BMES Biomedical Engineering Society Annual Meeting, October 12-15, 2011, Hartford, Connecticut, USA

Ayaz H, Shewokis P A, Bunce S, Onaral B (2011). An Optical Brain Computer Interface for Environmental Control. 33nd Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference, August 29 – September 4, 2011, Boston, USA

Oum K, Ayaz H, Shewokis P A, Diefenbach, P (2010). MindTactics: A Brain Computer Interface Gaming Platform. Proceedings of 2nd International IEEE Games Innovation Conference Hong Kong, China, (pp. 1-5).

Oum K, (2010) Brain computer interface gaming: development of concentration based game design for research environments, Masters Degree Thesis, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA.

Shewokis P A , Ayaz H , Izzetoglu K , Izzetoglu M , Bunce, S C , Schultheis M T , Pourrezaei K , (2008) “Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity druing the learning of computer tasks in a contextual interference paradigm using fNIRs: A case series”, The North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity Conference, Ontario, Canada, June 2008

Ayaz H , Levin S , Platek S , Onaral B , (2008) “Maze Suite 1.0: A complete set of tools to prepare, present and analyze navigational & spatial cognitive neuroscience experiments”, Behavior Research Methods, 40(1), 353-359

Levin S L, Krawczyk M, Ayaz H, & Platek S M (2006). Mazes and spatial cognition. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 21(6), pp584.

Ayaz H, Levin S, Platek S, Onaral B. (2006) “MazeSuite: Navigational and Spatial cognitive Neuroscience Experimentation Toolset”, Annual Meeting of The Biomedical Engineering Society, October 2006, Chicago

Ayaz H, Levin S, Platek S, Onaral B. (2006) “MazeSuite: A Complete Set of Tools to Prepare, Present and Analyze Navigational & Spatial Evolutionary Cognitive Neuroscience Experiments”, 18th Annual meeting of the Human Behavior and Evolution Society, Philadelphia, June 2006.

Ayaz H (2005). Analytical software and stimulus-presentation platform to utilize, visualize and analyze near-infrared spectroscopy measures. Masters Degree Thesis, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA.